economia a cuba

Cuba has two official currencies, both of which are called peso. [30] United States monopolies like Bethlehem Steel Corporation and Speyer gained control over valuable national resources. However, greater private property and free market rights were granted by the 2019 Constitution. Accordingly, the cumulative growth in GDP since 2004 stood at 42.5%. Havana devotes significant resources to building tourist facilities and renovating historic structures. However, customers are experiencing rolling blackouts of power from energy companies in order to preserve electricity during Cuba's economic crisis. [104] After Cuba lost Soviet subsidies in 1991, malnutrition resulted in an outbreak of diseases. [68] Since 2014, the Cuban economy has seen a dramatic uptick in foreign investment. This page has economic forecasts for Cuba including a long-term outlook for the next decades, plus medium-term expectations for the next four quarters and short-term market predictions for the next release affecting the Cuba economy. [82], The Energy Revolution is a program executed by Cuba in 2006. In 1994 the possession and use of US dollars was legalised, and by 2004 the US dollar was in widespread use in the country. The Cuban sugar economy is the principal agricultural economy in Cuba.Historically, the Cuban economy relied heavily on sugar exports, but sugar production has declined since the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. [91], Scientists such as V. Verez-Bencomo were awarded international prizes for their contributions in biotechnology and sugar cane. [14] Investment is restricted and requires approval by the government. 2017. The agreement contained a penalty clause, should Cuba again not make payments on schedule (by 31 October of any year), it would be charged 9 percent interest until payment, as well as late interest on the portion in arrears. However, in response to stricter economic sanctions by the US and because the authorities were pleased with Cuba's economic recovery, the Cuban government decided in October 2004 to remove US dollars from circulation. The relationship cultivated between Cuba and Venezuela in recent years resulted in agreements in which Venezuela provides cheap oil in exchange for Cuban "missions" of doctors to bolster the Venezuelan health care system. Alternative energy has emerged as a major priority as the government has promoted wind and solar power. The Cuban economy is a planned economy that is dominated by state-run enterprises and state-employed labor force. Tourist arrivals will pick up albeit very slowly, which will keep the current-account surplus low in … Despite these openings, Cuba maintains nationalized companies for the distribution of all essential amenities (water, power, ...) and other essential services to ensure a healthy population (education, health care). ^ These three Dutch Caribbean territories form the SSS islands. (1997) Human Development in Cuba: Growing Risk of Reversal in Development with a Human Face: Experience in Social Achievement and Economic Growth Ed. 87 percent of urban homes had electricity, but only 10 percent of rural homes did. citizens. † Physiographically, these are continental islands not a part of the volcanic Windward Islands arc. The economy of Cuba is a planned economy dominated by state-run enterprises. Cuba is known for its system of food distribution, the Libreta de Abastecimiento ("Supplies booklet"). Piccone,Ted and Harold Trinkunas "The Cuba-Venezuela Alliance: The Beginning of the End?" [82] Government spending is around 67 percent of GDP and public debt is around 35 percent of the domestic economy. At this point, the state maintained strict capital and exchange controls. Redeems coupons for rice, sugar, oil, matches and sells other foodstuffs including rum. [101] In 2017, however, the country reported a record 2 billion in foreign investment. The liberalized agricultural markets introduced in October 1994, at which state and private farmers sell above-quota production at free market prices, broadened legal consumption alternatives and reduced black market prices. Set monthly fees must be paid regardless of income earned and frequent inspections yield stiff fines when any of the many self-employment regulations are violated. As of 2012, Venezuela accounted for 20.8% of Cuba's GDP while Cuba only accounted for roughly 4% of Venezuela's. [17], The country achieved more even distribution of income after the Cuban Revolution of 1953–1959,[citation needed] which was followed by an economic embargo by the United States (1960- ). Els estudis que se'n derivaren s'enfocaven en el creixement i la llibertat econòmiques, principalment en la idea del laissez faire i la lliure competència. In 1956, U.S.-owned companies controlled "90 percent of the telephone and electric services, about 50 percent in public service railways, and roughly 40 percent in raw sugar production" according to a report published by the Department of Commerce. After reforms, more than 150,000 farmers could lease land from the government for surplus crop production. [101], As of 2009, Cuba had $47.08 billion in revenues and $50.34 billion in expenditures with 34.6% of GDP in public debt, an account balance of $513 million and $4.647 billion in reserves of foreign exchange and gold. The Cuban gross domestic product declined at least 35% between 1989 and 1993 due to the loss of 80% of its trading partners[clarification needed] and Soviet subsidies. Cuban officials estimate roughly 1.6 million tourists visited Cuba in 1999 yielding about $1.9 billion in gross revenues. The government of Cuba owns and operates most industries and most of the labor force is employed by the state. Foreign investors must form joint ventures with the Cuban government. They encouraged the creation of a co-operative variant of socialism where the state plays a less active role in the economy and the formation of worker-owned co-operatives and self-employment enterprises. L'economia clàssica fou principalment una escola anglesa de pensament econòmic que s'originà a la fi del segle XVIII amb els escrits d'Adam Smith i que continuà desenvolupant-se amb els escrits de David Ricardo i de John Stuart Mill. promising formations in the Gulf of Mexico, U.S.-Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity Act, Central banks and currencies of the Caribbean, List of Latin American and Caribbean countries by GDP growth, List of Latin American and Caribbean countries by GDP (nominal), List of Latin American and Caribbean countries by GDP (PPP), List of countries by tax revenue as percentage of GDP, List of countries by future gross government debt, List of countries by leading trade partners, "Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)", "Employment to population ratio, 15+, total (%) (national estimate) - Cuba", "Explainer: What is old and new in Cuba's proposed constitution", "Cuba reports record $2 billion in foreign investment deals", "Foreign investment in Cuba: Obstacles cleared, incentives in place", "Talking with Cubans about the State of the Nation (3/5/04)", How to break with Cuba's economic dependence. The payments would phase in gradually, increasing from an initial 1.6 percent of the total owed until the last payment of 8.9 percent in 2033. According to Perez, "Havana was then what Las Vegas has become." "[44] Other reports painted an equally dismal picture, describing Cubans having to resort to eating anything they could find, from Havana Zoo animals to domestic cats. Sugar had done well from 1985–90 and crashed precipitously in 1990–91 and did not recover for five years. Fino agli anni Ottanta, Cuba ha beneficiato di consistenti aiuti da parte dell’URSS e degli altri paesi comunisti europei. Nickel has been Cuba’s largest merchandise export since the collapse of sugar by 2002. ", "Venezuela's Chávez Fills $9.4 Billion Yearly Post-Soviet Gap in Cuba's Accounts", "As Hugo Chavez fights for his life, Cuba fears for its future", Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives, Inequality Becomes More Visible in Cuba as the Economy Shifts, Raúl Castro Thanks U.S., but Reaffirms Communist Rule in Cuba, Coordination of United Revolutionary Organizations, Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces (MINFAR), Committees for the Defense of the Revolution, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu,, World Trade Organization member economies, Articles with dead external links from January 2019, Articles with dead external links from April 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from January 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2000, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2009, Articles with self-published sources from February 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2013, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from March 2016, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Cuban peso (CUP) = 100 cents and Cuban Convertible Peso (CUC) = 25 CUP, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, pharmaceuticals, tobacco, construction, steel, cement, agricultural machinery, sugar, petroleum, nickel, medical products, sugar, tobacco, fish, citrus, coffee, petroleum, food, machinery and equipment, chemicals, state sector 72.3%, non-state sector 27.7% in 2017, data are official rates; unofficial estimates are about double, Expenditure adjustments (education, healthcare, sports, culture). This led to speculation of the emergence of a two-tier economy[96] and the fostering of a state of tourist apartheid. [needs update] However, monthly wages remain less than 20 U.S. [106] Pensions are among the smallest in the Americas at $9.50/month. [12] In November 2019, Cuba's state newspaper Granma published an article acknowledging that despite the deterioration in relations between the U.S. and Cuban governments, the Cuban government was still making efforts to attract foreign investment in 2018. Growth then picked up, with a growth in GDP of 11.8% in 2005 according to government figures. Empresa Exterior 766 views. The service sector in Cuba is dominated by tourism, retail, and finance which generated $1.7billion. [34] More than 40 percent of the Cuban workforce in 1958 were either underemployed or unemployed. Latin America Initiative on Foreign Policy at Brookings (2014): 1-12.. Frank, Marc. Cuba: Economía e Industria 1. In 2000, 1,773,986 foreign visitors arrived in Cuba. E’ situatanella parte settentrionale delvasto arcipelago dei Caraibied è la sua isola più grande.A nord si trovano gli StatiUniti,separati da Cuba dalloStretto di Florida largo solo180 km e l’ Oceano AtlanticoSettentrionale.• Cuba Accounts For Over Half", "Mexico says it will waive most of $487 mln debt owed by Cuba", "Exclusive - Cuba's debt deal: Easy terms, but severe penalties if late again", "Cuba seals 'historic' debt pact with Paris Club", "Exclusive: Cuba fails to make payment in key debt accord, sources say", "Cuba defaults on Paris Club debt: says it will meet its commitments", "Cuba seeks delay in debt repayment to 2022: diplomats", "La Revolucion Energetica: Cuba's Energy Revolution", "2nd Cuban offshore oil well also a bust", "Cuban leader looks to boost food production", "Ecuadorians benefit from Cuban drug Heberprot-p", Tourism in Cuba during the Special Period, "EU stresses support for Cuba even as U.S. hikes sanctions", "The situation of Cuban workers during the "Special Period in peacetime, List of countries by Human Development Index#Complete list of countries, "How will the Venezuela-Cuba link fare after Chávez's death? L’embargo qu’a subi Cuba pendant cinquante ans a été un handicap pour la croissance de son commerce extérieur. Today Hotel Havana Riviera is the only hotel that was built before the revolutionary government took control. A power tariff reduced inefficient use. [105] Despite this, the poverty level reported by the government is one of the lowest in the developing world, ranking 6th out of 108 countries, 4th in Latin America and 48th among all countries. But it was proven, first, that they did not know how to do it and, second, that they exploited the rest of the economy by receiving large amounts of resources . In total, industrial production accounted for almost 37% of Cuban GDP, or US$6.9 billion and employed 24% of the population, or 2,671,000 people, in 1996. [18] This accounted for anywhere between 10% and 40% of Cuban GDP, depending on the year. [95], The growth of tourism has had social and economic repercussions. In 2000 Cuba's public sector employment was at 76% while the employment in the private sector was comprised of self-employed people stood at 23% comparing to the same ratio taken in 1981 of 91% to 8% respectively. # Physiographically, Bermuda is an isolated oceanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean, not a part of the Antilles, West Indies, Caribbean, North American continental mainland or South American continental mainland. The economy of Cuba is a planned economy dominated by state-run enterprises. Santosh Mehrotra and Richard Jolly, Clarendon Press, Oxford]. În ciuda faptului că i-a fost interzis accesul la împrumuturile de la FMI și Banca Mondială, deoarece Cuba este în zona debitorilor Clubului de la Paris cu sute de milioane de dolari, economia țării nu s-a prăbușit, deși venitul pe cap de locuitor este încă mai mic decât era în 1989 (dar în creștere lentă). In 2014 Cuba's economic freedom score was 28.7, making its economy one of the world's least free. Despite reforms, the government continues to play a large role in the economy. En 2016, le commerce extérieur de Cuba4 (c’est-à-dire la valeur des exportations plus celle des importations de biens et services) s’élevait à 26,6 G$ US et représentait 29 % du PIB. dollars. Web. [23], Although Cuba belonged to the high-income countries of Latin America since the 1870s, income inequality was high, accompanied by capital outflows to foreign investors. La Farmacia – Low-priced medicine, with the lowest costs anywhere in the world. [48][self-published source?] [50][51][clarification needed], However, from 1996, the State started to impose income taxes on self-employed Cubans. As a result, Cubans who earned only in the peso economy, outside the tourist sector, were at a disadvantage. Over the 20-year history of the Index, Cuba's economic freedom remained stagnant near the bottom of the “repressed” category. [66] Afro-Cubans, moreover, receive a very limited portion of family remittances from the Cuban-American community in South Florida, which is mostly white. 4:32. [58] Mobile phones, which had been restricted to Cubans working for foreign companies and government officials, were legalized in 2008. companies. Now we must look ahead to other moves - economic, diplomatic, and strategic".[38]. For example, the drug Heberprot-P was developed as a cure for diabetic foot ulcer and had success in many developing countries. The country's public debt by December 2014 stood at $25.21billion while the economic aid was $87.8 billion. The Cuban economy is a planned economy that is dominated by state-run enterprises and state-employed labor force. Change in the structure of employment; reduce inflated payrolls and increase work in the non-state sector. Río Piedras, P.R., Editorial San Juan [1972]-<1992> (OCoLC)609850888 So far measures taken to deal with the crisis are largely fiscal […] The payment for the remaining $2.6 billion would be made over 18 years with annual payments due by October 31st of every year. Despite income inequality becoming high accompanied by capital outflows to foreign countries, Cuba still ranks as one of the high-income countries in Latin America since way back in 1870. [27], Its proximity to the United States made it a familiar holiday destination for wealthy Americans. The US had dominated major industries monopolizing about 25% of Cuba's land that paved the way for poverty and unemployment which triggered high migration levels of crime and prostitution. Sin costo, fácil y rápido puedes encontrar trabajo en casi 13.700+ ofertas en Cuba y otras ciudades en República de Cuba. [16], Housing and transportation costs are low. In the early part of Century, Cuba's economy was growing rapidly because it exported to the US making the country one of the most prosperous among the Latin American countries. The achievements of the radical social policy of socialist Cuba, which enabled social advancement for the formerly underprivileged classes, were curbed by the economic crisis and the low wages of recent decades. [12] It was also reported that foreign investment in Cuba had increased dramatically since 2014. Due to the fall of the Soviet Union, the communist party advocated for the formation of cooperatives and also encouraged self-employment. 2012-02-Kakaokugel auf Reibe anagoria.JPG 4,752 × 3,168; 8.46 MB Scarce imported goods – and even some of the local manufactures, such as rum and coffee – could be had at dollar-only stores, but were hard to find or unavailable at peso prices. The forgiveness totaled $32 billion dollars. Other taxes include a tax on property transfers and a sales tax. Marianne Ward (Loyola College) and John Devereux (Queens College CUNY), "John F. Kennedy: Speech of Senator John F. Kennedy, Cincinnati, Ohio, Democratic Dinner", "Sugar Cane and Agricultural Transformations in Cuba", "Cuba After Castro: Can Exiles Reclaim Their Stake? This was the first of many nationalizations made by the new government, the assets seized totaled US$9 billion.[36]. Cuba's GDP plummeted 34% and trade with the nations apart of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) declined by 56%. In fact, one of the issues the Energy Revolution program faces comes from Cuba's power production suffering from the absence of investment and the ongoing trade sanctions imposed by the United States. Cuba's Economy. Poverty and unemployment in rural areas triggered migration to Havana. In 2017, Cuba produced and consumed an estimated 1189 million m3 of natural gas, with no m3 of exports or imports and 70.79 billion m3 of proved reserves. Reflecting on the Special period Cuban president Fidel Castro later admitted that many mistakes had been made, "The country had many economists and it is not my intention to criticize them, but I would like to ask why we hadn’t discovered earlier that maintaining our levels of sugar production would be impossible. The country's top export partners are Venezuela taking 33.5%, Canada taking 15.9%, China taking 9.5%and Netherlands taking 4.5% of the total exports. Usually grouped with Northern American countries based on proximity; occasionally grouped with the Caribbean region culturally. Most of Cuba's industries are either owned or run by the government, and most of its labor force is employed by the state. Despite some progress in restructuring the state sector since 2010, the private sector remained constrained by heavy regulations and tight state controls. CONFINI• Cuba non è solamenteun’isola,ma anche unarcipelago che comprendequasi 4200 isole e isolettedette“cayos”che circondanol’isola principale. In 1970, Fidel Castro attempted to motivate the Cuban people to harvest 10 million tons of sugar, in Spanish known as La Zafra, in order to increase their exports and grow their economy. Many of these are loans or contracts for management, supplies, or services normally not considered equity investment in Western economies. [12][13], As of 2000[update], public-sector employment was 76% and private-sector employment (mainly composed of self-employment) was 23% - compared to the 1981 ratio of 91% to 8%. Empresas confiables. In 2011, "The new economic reforms were introduced, effectively creating a new economic system, referred by some as the "New Cuban Economy"[55][56] Since then, over 400,000 Cubans have signed up to be entrepreneurs. region and its overall score was significantly lower than the regional average. A comprehensive list of changes is:[60][61], On December 20, 2011, a new credit policy allowed Cuban banks to finance entrepreneurs and individuals wishing to make major purchases to do home improvements in addition to farmers. The gains from these investments were reaped by American businessmen leading to discontent among the Cuban people. [82] As of 2015, Cuba imported about 70–80% of its food. Its overall score was 0.2 point higher than last year, with deteriorations in trade freedom, fiscal freedom, monetary freedom and freedom from corruption counterbalanced by an improvement in business freedom. the entirety of U.S. economic aid to Latin America. Cuba is the 89th, largest importing economy in the world. Following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the ruling Communist Party of Cuba encouraged the formation of worker co-operatives and self-employment . [49] In 2007 the Cuban economy grew by 7.5%, higher than the Latin American average. [Brundenius, Claes (2009) Revolutionary Cuba at 50: Growth with Equity revisited. [41] It expanded later in the 1970s to the point where some 8000 Cubans worked in overseas assignments.

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